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Then, the two main categories of geothermal loops are analyzed: closed loop horizontal or vertical geothermal exchangers and open loop system installations. Finally, the proposed methodology to follow when such a system should be designed is discussed, containing cost elements issues of such systems. Chapter 8 presents the essential continuous monitoring of outdoor natural qualities for optimizing operation, preventing small and large scale damages and adapting design according local conditions. This is why most of the instrumentation presented in this chapter is based on transducers: flow transducers, temperature transducers solar radiation transducers, humidity transducers etc.
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Geothermal Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition
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Hydrogen Production and Storage - Pp. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Stober , Ingrid, Bucher , Kurt. The internal heat of the planet Earth represents an inexhaustible reservoir of thermal energy. This form of energy, known as geothermal energy has been utilized throughout human history in the form of hot water from hot springs.
Modern utilization of geothermal energy includes direct use of the heat and its conversion to other forms of energy, mainly electricity. Geothermal energy is a form of renewable energy and its use is associated with very little or no CO2-emissions and its importance as an energy source has greatly increased as the effects of climate change become more prominent.
Because of its inexhaustibility it is obvious that utilization of geothermal energy will become a cornerstone of future energy supplies. The exploration of geothermal resources has become an important topic of study as geology and earth science students prepare to meet the demands of a rapidly growing industry, which involves an increasing number professionals and public institutions participating in geothermal energy related projects.
This book meets the demands of both groups of readers, students and professionals. Geothermal Energy and its utilization is systematically presented and contains the necessary technical information needed for developing and understanding geothermal energy projects. Specific chapters of the book deal with borehole heat exchangers and with the direct use of groundwater and thermal water in hydrogeothermal systems.
A central topic are Enhanced Geothermal Systems hot-dry-rock systems , a key technology for energy supply in the near future. Pre-drilling site investigations, drilling technology, well logging and hydraulic test programs are important subjects related to the exploration phase of developing Geothermal Energy sites. Earthquakes and magma movement break up the rock covering, allowing water to circulate.
As the water rises to the surface, natural hot springs and geysers occur, such as Old Faithful at Yellowstone National Park. Seismically active hotspots are not the only places where geothermal energy can be found. There is a steady supply of milder heat—useful for direct heating purposes—at depths of anywhere from 10 to a few hundred feet below the surface virtually in any location on Earth. Even the ground below your own backyard or local school has enough heat to control the climate in your home or other buildings in the community. In addition, there is a vast amount of heat energy available from dry rock formations very deep below the surface 4—10 km.
Using the emerging technology known as Enhanced Geothermal Systems EGS , we may be able to capture this heat for electricity production on a much larger scale than conventional technologies currently allow. While still primarily in the development phase, the first demonstration EGS projects provided electricity to grids in the United States and Australia in If the full economic potential of geothermal resources can be realized, they would represent an enormous source of electricity production capacity. In , the U.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL found that conventional geothermal sources hydrothermal in 13 states have a potential capacity of 38, MW, which could produce million MWh of electricity annually [ 4 ]. State and federal policies are likely to spur developers to tap some of this potential in the next few years. The Geothermal Energy Association estimates that projects now under development around the country could provide up to 2, megawatts of new capacity [ 3 ].
- Geologic Fundamentals of Geothermal Energy.
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As EGS technologies improve and become competitive, even more of the largely untapped geothermal resource could be developed. Not only do geothermal resources in the United States offer great potential, they can also provide continuous baseload electricity.see
Geothermal Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition - Google книги
According to NREL, the capacity factors of geothermal plants—a measure of the ratio of the actual electricity generated over time compared to what would be produced if the plant was running nonstop for that period—are comparable with those of coal and nuclear power [ 5 ]. With the combination of both the size of the resource base and its consistency, geothermal can play an indispensable role in a cleaner, more sustainable power system.
Salt Wells geothermal plant in Nevada. Photo: U. Department of Energy. Geothermal springs for power plants. Currently, the most common way of capturing the energy from geothermal sources is to tap into naturally occurring "hydrothermal convection" systems, where cooler water seeps into Earth's crust, is heated up, and then rises to the surface. Once this heated water is forced to the surface, it is a relatively simple matter to capture that steam and use it to drive electric generators.
Geothermal power plants drill their own holes into the rock to more effectively capture the steam. There are three basic designs for geothermal power plants, all of which pull hot water and steam from the ground, use it, and then return it as warm water to prolong the life of the heat source. In the simplest design, known as dry steam, the steam goes directly through the turbine, then into a condenser where the steam is condensed into water. In a second approach, very hot water is depressurized or "flashed" into steam which can then be used to drive the turbine.
In the third approach, called a binary cycle system, the hot water is passed through a heat exchanger, where it heats a second liquid—such as isobutane—in a closed loop. Isobutane boils at a lower temperature than water, so it is more easily converted into steam to run the turbine. These three systems are shown in the diagrams below. The three basic designs for geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash steam, and binary cycle.
Image: U. The choice of which design to use is determined by the resource. If the water comes out of the well as steam, it can be used directly, as in the first design. If it is hot water of a high enough temperature, a flash system can be used; otherwise it must go through a heat exchanger. Since there are more hot water resources than pure steam or high-temperature water sources, there is more growth potential in the binary cycle, heat exchanger design.
The largest geothermal system now in operation is a steam-driven plant in an area called the Geysers, north of San Francisco, California. Despite the name, there are actually no geysers there, and the heat that is used for energy is all steam, not hot water. Although the area was known for its hot springs as far back as the mids, the first well for power production was not drilled until Deeper wells were drilled in the s, but real development didn't occur until the s and s. By , 26 power plants had been built, for a capacity of more than 2, MW.
Because of the rapid development of the area in the s, and the technology used, the steam resource has been declining since Today, owned primarily by the California utility Calpine and with a net operating capacity of MW, the Geysers facilities still meets nearly 60 percent of the average electrical demand for California's North Coast region from the Golden Gate Bridge north to the Oregon border [ 6 ]. The plants at the Geysers use an evaporative water-cooling process to create a vacuum that pulls the steam through the turbine, producing power more efficiently.