Growers were asked about their IPM activities in relation to three categories; risk management, pest monitoring and pest control. Information was collected about all activities growers conducted in relation to each category.
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IPM programs aim to prevent or reduce the risk of pests becoming a threat by minimising the risk of damage occurring that will require subsequent control. Table 18 presents an overview of the risk management measures adopted by the growers surveyed. Two thirds of growers used crop rotation to manage the risk of pest damage. Rotation is a basic principle of farming breaking the link between pathogen and host and reducing pest population build-up. It can also improve soil fertility and structure consequently increasing the vigour of subsequent crops.
A similar proportion 60 per cent of growers tested their soils in order to tailor inputs to improve crop performance. Almost half of growers tested soil nutrient levels with lower proportions testing for disease, pH and insect pests Figure By pre-emptively testing for nutritional and pest status farmers' can make informed decisions about inputs required and crop choice for that field. Almost three quarters of growers managed their seed bed agronomy to reduce risk.
All increased organic matter to improve soil quality while a smaller proportion implemented other measures such as using a stale seed bed, considering pest management when planning irrigation, adoption of no till systems and use of seaweed to control pests Figure Almost two thirds of growers amended cultivation methods at sowing.
Just over half chose to use pest free growing media such as peat, coir and hydroponic systems. Other growers varied sowing rates and dates to mitigate for potential pest damage Figure A third selected pest resistant varieties to reduce damage. Some growers 13 per cent also confirmed that they chose to adopt varietal diversification using a range of different varieties to increase overall resistance to pests and environmental stresses. The same percentage used certified seed which has been tested to ensure it meets quality standards. A fifth of growers used seed treatments to protect seedlings at crop emergence.
A fifth also reported other activities such as avoiding growing crops which had been affected by insect and disease damage in the past and choosing to grow heritage varieties Figure Almost half of respondents sowed catch or cover crops as part of their crop production cycle. These crops were cultivated to improve soil quality, suppress weeds and provide habitats for beneficial insects Figure Finally, 60 per cent of the growers sampled adopted techniques to protect or enhance populations of beneficial insects Table A third planted wild flower strips, 20 per cent planted pollen sources and 13 per cent maintained uncultivated strips.
Other strategies included creation of ponds and placing bee hives, hedging and trees beside polytunnels. In addition a small number of respondents used push-pull strategies to manage pests by using attractive trap crops and repellent treatments on the main crop Figure Figure 12 Seed bed cultivations adopted to reduce pest risk percentage of respondents. Natural pest control in the garden. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end.
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Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Natural pest control in the garden 1. Backyard Unicorn production 3. Components of a unicorn Early April Fools!!! What does natural Pest Control Mean??? Effectiveness of strategies: 8. Late Blight on tomato JPG Powdery mildew Aphids These tiny, fragile insects suck plant juices from tender growth areas. Feeding can cause distortion of tips and leaves. Aphids often produce honeydew.
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Aphids reproduce by giving birth to live young. Populations may increase rapidly. Predators and parasites often lower aphid populations within a short time. Lady beetles and their larvae feed on aphids, scales and other pests. Aphid Predators Tiny wasps lay their eggs in aphids. The aphids then bloat like the one to the left of the arrow. Ash grey or grayish grey covered with numerous closely appraised silky hairs, radiating from the center. Hilum is present in the center of one of the flat surfaces. Micropyle is seen as a small projecting point on the margin.
Hilum and micropyle are connected by a ridge;.
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It is present below the testa and is grey and horny. Below the endosperm in the center is a narrow slit like cavity. To a thick section of endosperm add ammonium vanadate and sulphuric acid. Middle portion of endosperm is strained purple because of strychnine. To a thick section add concentrated nitric acid. Outer part of endosperm is strained yellow to orange because of brucine. Dried seeds of Strychnos ignatii Ignatius beans contain as much as 2.
go to site Of the many surfaces, one is large and the others are small and flat. Seeds are small and thick. They also have lignified, unicellular epidermal trichomes which however can be distinguished from those of S. Nux Vomica. Nux- vomica seeds are brighter and yellowish buff in colour and show a small ridge on the edge. Here again as the alkaloids are absent the seeds are not bitter. Neem consists of the fresh or dried leaves and seed oil of Azadirachta indica J.
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Jnss Melia Indica or M. They are imparipinnate, alternate, exstipulate, cm long on long slender petioles; leaflets ; alternate or opposite, very shortly stalked, Solitary with a thick Testa and embryo with fallacious cotyledons in the axis of scanty endocarp.
India, it is cultivated in Kerala. It is tall perennial, throwing dense fascicles of leaves from a short rhizome. The plant is quite stout, erect, about 1. The leaves are linear and tapering, up to cm long, glabrous green and lower rib is red in colour. Flowers are athlete panicles, cm long and nodding. The grass has pleasant aromatic smell.