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TCM describes health as the harmonious interaction of these entities and the outside world, and disease as a disharmony in interaction. TCM diagnosis aims to trace symptoms to patterns of an underlying disharmony, by measuring the pulse, inspecting the tongue, skin, and eyes, and looking at the eating and sleeping habits of the person as well as many other things. By the end of the 16th century, the number of drugs documented had reached close to 1, And by the end of the last century, published records of CMM had reached 12, drugs.

Stone and bone needles found in ancient tombs led Joseph Needham to speculate that acupuncture might have been carried out in the Shang dynasty. The Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon Huangdi Nei Jing , the oldest received work of Chinese medical theory, was compiled around the first century BCE on the basis of shorter texts from different medical lineages. Focusing on drug prescriptions rather than acupuncture, [25] [26] it was the first medical work to combine Yinyang and the Five Phases with drug therapy.

Having gone through numerous changes over time, the formulary now circulates as two distinct books: the Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders and the Essential Prescriptions of the Golden Casket , which were edited separately in the eleventh century, under the Song dynasty. This book has been compiled in the form of question and answer explanations. A total of 81 questions have been discussed. Therefore, it is also called "Eighty-One Nan". Questions one to twenty-two is about pulse study, questions twenty-three to twenty-nine is about meridian study, questions thirty to forty-seven is related to urgent illnesses, questions forty-eight to sixty-one is related to serious diseases, questions sixty-two to sixty-eight is related to acupuncture points, and questions sixty-nine to eighty-one is related to the needle point methods.

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The book is credited as developing its own path, while also inheriting the theories from Huangdi Neijing. The content includes physiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment contents, and a more essential and specific discussion of pulse diagnosis. Shennong Ben Cao Jing is the earliest medical book in China. It did not only have on author. Instead, it was the combined effort of many medical scientists in the Qin and Han Dynasties who summarized, collected and compiled the results of pharmacological experience at their time periods.

It was the first systematic summary of Chinese herbal medicine.

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In the centuries that followed, several shorter books tried to summarize or systematize its contents of the book Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon. The Canon of Problems probably second century CE tried to reconcile divergent doctrines from the Inner Canon and developed a complete medical system centered on needling therapy.

Then came the Cultural Revolution Traditional Chinese medicine was strongly affected during this period. The development of traditional medicine in China was part of the pursuit of national identity during the Cultural Revolution. During this period, the Chinese government made large investments in traditional medicine to try to develop affordable medical care and public health facilities.

Modernity, cultural identity and China's social and economic reconstruction are the main aspects of the Cultural Revolution. Compared to the colonial and feudal past, this movement tried to define a new and modern China. During the Cultural Revolution, the Ministry of Health directed health care throughout China and established primary care units. Chinese physicians who are trained in Western medicine also learn traditional medicine, while traditional healers receive training in modern methods, dynamically integrate modern medical concepts and methods, and revitalize some of the appropriate aspects of traditional medicine.

Therefore, traditional Chinese medicine was re-created in response to Western medicine during the Cultural Revolution. During the Cultural Revolution in , the Communist Party of China supported a new system of health care delivery for rural areas. Each village is assigned a barefoot doctor a medical staff with basic medical skills and knowledge to deal with minor illnesses and is responsible for providing basic medical care. The medical staff combined the values of traditional China with modern scientific methods to provide health and medical care to poor farmers in remote rural areas.

The barefoot doctors became a symbol of the Cultural Revolution, for the introduction of modern medicine into villages where traditional Chinese medicine services were used. At the beginning of Hong Kong's opening up, Western medicine was not yet popular, and Western medicine doctors were mostly foreigners; local residents mostly relied on Chinese medicine practitioners. In , the British government of Hong Kong issued an announcement pledging to govern Hong Kong residents in accordance with all the original rituals, customs and private legal property rights.

The establishment in of the Tung Wah Hospital was the first use of Chinese medicine for the treatment in Chinese hospitals providing free medical services. In , Hong Kong had researched the use of traditional Chinese medicine to replace Western medicine.

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Traditional Chinese medicine TCM is a broad range of medicine practices sharing common concepts which have been developed in China and are based on a tradition of more than 2, years, including various forms of herbal medicine , acupuncture, massage tui na , exercise qigong , and dietary therapy. They represent two abstract and complementary aspects that every phenomenon in the universe can be divided into.

The concept of yin and yang is also applicable to the human body; for example, the upper part of the body and the back are assigned to yang, while the lower part of the body are believed to have the yin character. TCM also identifies drugs believed to treat these specific symptom combinations, i. Strict rules are identified to apply to the relationships between the Five Phases in terms of sequence, of acting on each other, of counteraction, etc.

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TCM "holds that the body's vital energy chi or qi circulates through channels, called meridians , that have branches connected to bodily organs and functions. The tendency of Chinese thought is to seek out dynamic functional activity rather than to look for the fixed somatic structures that perform the activities. Because of this, the Chinese have no system of anatomy comparable to that of the West. Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM have notions of a pre-scientific culture, similar to European humoral theory.

TCM practitioners disagree among themselves about how to diagnose patients and which treatments should go with which diagnoses. Even if they could agree, the TCM theories are so nebulous that no amount of scientific study will enable TCM to offer rational care. TCM has been the subject of controversy within China. Vacuity of qi will be characterized especially by pale complexion, lassitude of spirit, lack of strength, spontaneous sweating, laziness to speak, non-digestion of food, shortness of breath especially on exertion , and a pale and enlarged tongue.

Qi is believed to be partially generated from food and drink, and partially from air by breathing. Another considerable part of it is inherited from the parents and will be consumed in the course of life. TCM uses special terms for qi running inside of the blood vessels and for qi that is distributed in the skin, muscles, and tissues between them. Qi is said to circulate in the meridians. In traditional clinical encounters, women and men were treated differently as one could imagine given the time period. Chinese doctor Cheng Maoxian, born in , lived and pracitced medicine in Yangzhou in the s and s.

He took diligent care to write case studies of his interactions with his patients and their ailments as well as his prescribed medicines.

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For example, Cheng told each case study witin social conditions. In these encounters, between sick women and their male doctors, women were often shy about their issues and made the doctor's work more difficult because they did not know all the symptoms the patient was experiencing.

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Even if they did confess all their symptoms, doctors, such as Cheng, would consider the majority of the illness to be linked to some problem concerning the woman's reproductive system or cycle. In this partiuclar case, hers involved discharge from her intimate areas. Cheng insisted on asking more about her illness and here, her modesty, her want to protect the information that regarded an intimate part of her body became a frustrating trend that doctors struggled with.

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When a woman fell ill, an appropriate adult man was to call the doctor and remain present during the examination, for the woman could not be left alone with the doctor. However, this was not always the case. In particular cases, when a woman dealt with complications with their pregnacy or at birth, older women became involved and assumed the role of the formal authority. Men in these situations would not have much power to interfere. However, when a doctor's visit was absolutely necessary, there existed tension as a breaking of norms may have been needed. In order to properly examine the patient, the doctor's were faced with the task of going beyond the norm of female modesty. As Cheng describes, there were four standard methods of diagnosis—looking, asking, listening and smelling and touching for pulse-taking. In order to maintain some form of modesty, women would often stay hidden behind curtains and screens.

The doctor was allowed to touch enough of her body to complete his examination, often just the pulse taking. This would lead to situations where the symptoms and the doctor's diagnosis did not agree and the doctor would have to ask to see more of the patient. Another example of where we can see the relationship between gender and medicine is by analyzing the illustrations that are in the Yazuan yizong jinjian Imperially-Commissioned Golden Mirror of Medical Learning which was a textbook and guide to practicing medicine under the Qianlong emperor's Imperial Academy of Medicine.

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There was a long standing belief that women's bodies were an imperfect variant of men's. There existed a type of visual androcentrism in Chinese medicine where there was a tendency to use male figures to represent the generic human body. This is seen as a result of the tradition in which men were used in generic situations and women were used only in contexts specifically gendered as female. Yin yang relationships developed a gendered body and was thought of as different depending on if the patient was male for female.

In a traditional sense, yin yang relationships could tell the doctor a lot about his patient. Taking the pulse of their patients was important in revealing this kind of information. To doctors during the 16th century, the pulse of females and males were different. Gender was presumed to influence the movement of energy and a well-trained physician would be expected to read the pulse and should have been able to identify two dozen or more energy flows. According to Bequeathed Writings of Master Chu writes that the male's yang pulse movement follows an ascending path in "compliance [with cosmic direction] so that the cycle of circulation in the body and the Vital Gate are felt The female's yin pulse movement follows a defending path against the direction of cosmic influences, so that the nadir and the Gate of Life are felt at the inch position of the left hand".

The act of diagnosing woman was not as simple as the diagnosing of men in traditional Chinese medicine. This was for several reasons: first, the treatment of sick women was expected to be called in by and take place under male authority. Second, women were often silent about their issues with doctors and male figures due to the societal expectation of female modesty and the presence of a male figure in the room. This anonymity and lack of conversation between the doctor and woman patient led to the inquiry diagnosis of the Four Diagnostic Methods [82] being the most challenging.

The study of medicine for women was called Fuke [81] known as gynecology in modern science and medicine ; however, it has little to no ancient works based on it except for Fu Qing-zhu's Fu Qing Zhu Nu Ke Fu Qing-zhu's Gynecology. The term Caesarean section derives from an ancient Roman, or Caesarean from Caesar law that demanded that when a pregnant woman died, her body could not be buried until the unborn child had been removed. Ancient Roman doctors were forbidden from performing this procedure on living women, however.

Traditional Chinese medicine's attempts to grapple with pregnancy are documented from at least the seventeenth century. According to Charlotte Furth, "a pregnancy in the seventeenth century as a known bodily experience emerged [ The Canon of the Pulse or the use of pulse in diagnosis stated that pregnancy was "a condition marked by symptoms of disorder in one whose pulse is normal" or "where the pulse and symptoms do not agree". Complications through the misdiagnosis and silence of pregnancies often involved medically induced abortions, according to Furth's book, Dr.

Cheng her case study "was unapologetic about endangering a fetus when pregnancy risked a mother's well being".